It later expanded again to include the far northern lands beyond the Baltic and another and dazzling civilization in the Far East (the medieval view).The earliest known surviving map, dating probably from the time of ), shows canals or rivers—perhaps the Tigris and a tributary—and surrounding mountains.
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Herodotus tells of five young adventurers of the tribe of the Nasamones living on the desert edge of Cyrenaica in North Africa, who journeyed southwest for many months across the desert, reaching a great river flowing from west to east; this presumably was the Niger, although Herodotus thought it to be the Upper Nile.
with 60 ships and 30,000 colonists “to found cities.” Even allowing for a possible great exaggeration of numbers, this expedition, if it occurred, can hardly have been the first exploratory voyage along the coast of West Africa; indeed, Herodotus reports that Phoenicians circumnavigated the continent about 600 .
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